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Walk into any grocery store or up to a vegetable stand in just about any place in the world and there, among other local fruits and vegetables, you will find bell peppers. Depending on the country they may be called by different names such as sweet peppers, paprika, capsicum, or simply and plainly, as peppers. Besides their name, bell peppers also differ in color. Most of us are familiar with the green, orange, yellow, and red varieties but there are also purple, brown, and very pale yellowish colored bell peppers.
Bell peppers belong to the same nightshade (or Solanaceae) plant family as tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes, and chili peppers. The peppers in this nightshade plant family are scientifically classified as Capsicum annuum, and this is applied to both the sweet (like bell peppers) and hot peppers (like jalapeños and cayenne) varieties in this particular plant family. There are many different cultivars of Capsicum, or peppers, which are classified under different species names. For example, the habanero chile is categorized under the Capsicum chinense.
Anatomy of a Bell Pepper
When you slice a bell pepper in half it will look exactly like any spicy chile pepper. There is a placenta covered with seeds, there are veins running along the flesh of the bell pepper. They are pretty much identical with the main exception being the difference in size. Bell peppers have a fruity scent, just like many hot chilies. Both have a crispness to their flesh and also high water content. You can slice, sauté, grill, char, pickle, stuff, or eat bell peppers just like you would any kind of spicy chilies. But when it comes to bell peppers you’ll never have to wear gloves to protect your skin from a chili burn, and you’ll never have to reach for a drink to calm the fiery heat after eating bell peppers.
Why Aren’t Bell Peppers Spicy?
So, if bell peppers are in the same scientific classification as cayenne chili pepper, why aren’t bell peppers hot? It comes down to a chemical compound called capsaicin. This chemical is the sole reason why a jalapeño is spicy and bell pepper is not. A bell pepper has no capsaicin. Capsaicin attaches itself to the mucous membranes in our mouths which in turn send out the fiery sensation. That heat in your mouth (or hands) will vary greatly depending on what type of chili pepper you’ve eaten. Peppers are ranked by their heat, or the amount of capsaicin they contain, on a scale called the Scoville Scale. Their capsaicin concentration is given a number on the scale and it is called Scoville Heat Units. Bell peppers do not have capsaicin, so they have zero Scoville Heat Units, therefore they are way at the bottom of the Scoville scale.
Culinary Uses of Bell Peppers
While bell peppers may not be spicy, it doesn’t make them any less pleasing than hot chilies. In fact, many of you may already be eating bell peppers in their dried, ground form, or as paprika. Yes, that deep red spice in your cupboard called paprika is in fact made from red bell peppers. Use fresh bell peppers or paprika just like you would spicy chilies. A fantastic thing to do with bell peppers is to combine them with hot chilies, which will both tone down the heat and add a new layer of flavor. The possibilities are truly endless.
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Scoville Scale Explained : The Measurement Of Chilli Pepper Hotness
What is the Scoville Scale?
Scoville Scale is a benchmark which is used to identify how hot some chillies are. As we know, some peppers have a sweet taste while other chillies, even just a small amount of them, can let you feel that your tongue is on fire. From the chemistry point of view, the hotness of a chilli pepper is generated by the the amount of capsaicin. It is a special chemical compound found in chillies which can release the piquant heat when touching a human’s taste buds. Generally, the crucial chemical which is responsible for the burning tongue, sweating and other feelings after chewing a pepper, capsaicin, can be found mostly in the ribs and seeds of a chilli pepper. The more capsaicin contained in a chilli, the hotter it will be.
Named after Wilbur L. Scoville, the Scoville Scale is defined to assign some scores for the hotness of those chillies. According to the definition of the Scoville Scale, the hotness is measured in units known as Scoville Heat Units (SHU). It is a unit indicating the number of times capsaicin needs to be diluted by sugar-water which can make people no longer feel the hotness of the chilli. Simply put, this unit indicates how much sugar-water needed to neutralize the spiciness or hotness of the original chilli to a plain taste. Here is a list of some common chillies from the perspective of Scoville Scale ratings. From this list, we can see the Carolina Reaper pepper is the hottest chilli in the world with an 2.2 million SHU. That means its capsaicin had to be diluted 2.2 million times with sugar water before the testers could no longer detect the spiciness. Let’s make it simple, to dilute one ml of Carolina Reaper pepper capsaicin, it needs 2200 litre of sugar water, which equals to 2.2 tonnes of water, to do this job.
2,200,000 SHU: Carolina Reaper pepper
1,300,000 SHU: Naga Viper pepper
1,000,000 SHU: Ghost pepper
500,000 SHU: Red Savina pepper
100,000–350,000 SHU: Habanero pepper; Scotch bonnet pepper
30,000 – 50,000: Cayenne Pepper
6,000–23,000 SHU: Serrano pepper
5,000–10,000 SHU: Chipotle pepper
2,500–5,000 SHU: Jalapeño pepper
0 SHU: Bell pepper
How Accurate Is The Scoville Scale?
You may wonder if the SHU might be that accurate since the human’s taste about the hotness varies widely from person to person which makes the Scoville rating a subjective measurement instead of an objective one. Moreover, the actual result may also be affected by other factors such as the growth conditions of the chilli such as the soil, water, sunlight and all other natural environmental factors. To ensure the accuracy of the result, there are some advanced processes such as a process called high-performance liquid chromatography which can be used to accurately measure the exact concentration of capsaicin in a chilli pepper. However, Scoville Scale is still widely used today by lots of people because of its simplicity of the definitions and usages.
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